Towns

Towns of our territory

Algua is a municipality of 752 inhabitants. It is located in Serina Valley, on the side of  Brembana Valley, about 24 km from Bergamo.
The municipality is made up of four hamlets: Pagliaro, Sambusita, Rigosa and Frerola.
A curiosity, since March 11, 1948 following the reconstitution of the municipality of Costa Serina, Algua has no more territorial continuity because it is divided into two distinct parts just from the municipality of Costa Serina and in the nearest point the two parts are more than 1,600 meters as the crow flies.
According to recent studies, the etymological origin of the name seems to derive from water, an element of which the area is very rich, since there are countless springs and small streams in the territory.
Another version concerning the origin of the toponym would be ascribable to the existence of a ford on the Serina torrent. The ford would then be abbreviated to Algua.
In recent times it is to be remembered a natural event, with disastrous consequences, which took place in the year 1888. A landslide hit the village of Truchel, sowing death and destruction. This event, however, led to the obstruction of the course of the Serina torrent, which formed a small lake, still existing today, called Algua Lake.
The first documents attesting the existence of the village date back to the year 917, when mention is made of an inhabitant of the area of Averara.
It is by far the oldest text as far as the entire upper Brembana Valley is concerned, so much so that it is believed that the toponym is intended to refer to the entire area that was commonly referred to as the Averara Valley, including the nearby Santa Brigida, Cusio, Olmo al Brembo, Ornica and Cassiglio.
It is common practice to believe, however, that the first stable settlements in this area can be traced back to the time of the barbarian invasions, when the populations subject to raids took refuge in remote places, sheltered from the impetus of the conquering hordes. In particular, it is presumed that it was the inhabitants of nearby Valsassina who arrived first (presumably around the sixth century), as evidenced by some place names that are the same between the two areas.
In medieval times the village played a fairly important role, being the last village on the road leading to Valtellina, in Graubünden. Being a border land, it was equipped with a customs house and two towers for preventive purposes. The construction of the Via Priula increased the importance of the village, which became an important commercial hub in the upper valley.
The end of the Venetian domination and the consequent advent of the Cisalpine Republic brought great changes to Averara, which found itself incorporated in the canton of the upper Brembana Valley, with its capital in Piazza Brembana, and many privileges that the Serenissima had guaranteed for centuries to the entire area were revoked.
Because of this there was a real collapse in transport, which caused the constant abandonment of the Via Priula, which fell into a state of abandonment, with consequent negative repercussions on the economy of the village.
The following years saw the French domination succeed the Austrian one, until 1859, when the Kingdom of Italy was born. During these years there were no important episodes, with people dedicated to live with dignity with what nature offered.
It was only in the last few decades that the tourism industry began to take hold more and more, and the village is recovering after a period of slow and inexorable depopulation.

The territory, made up of numerous small settlements, is immersed in nature and offers an excellent view. It is therefore possible to make an innumerable number of excursions, suitable for every kind of need.
In the inhabited centre stands out the porticoed street, once used for trade, in an excellent state of conservation, with coats of arms and paintings dating back to the 15th and 16th centuries.
Also worth mentioning is the parish church, dedicated to St. James, which houses sculptural works of good workmanship. There is also a production organ of the Serassi family.
Very characteristic are also the small churches of St. Pantaleone, dating back to the XV century, with a bell tower with mullioned windows, and that of the Madonna della Neve, in Valmoresca.

Aviatico is a municipality of 515 inhabitants, located on the plateau, which it shares with Selvino, overlooking the Seriana and  Brembana Valleys.
The territory of Aviatico is situated at an altitude of about 1,020 m a.s.l. on the western slopes of the Cornagera and Poieto mountains.
Slightly higher than the Selvino plateau, it includes in its territory the hamlets of Ama, Amora and Ganda. Although geographically and historically it is considered part of the Seriana valley, the orographic capital falls in the Serina valley, tributary of the Brembana valley, while only the hamlets are included in the Seriana impluvium.
The municipal limits are given to the north by the Forca, a small pass between the Cornagera mountains and the crest of Mount Suchello, while to the north-east it borders on the de Gru Valley and the part of the Vertova Valley falling within the municipality of Gazzaniga. The eastern portion is instead occupied by the hamlet of Ganda, in turn located at the top of the small Rovaro Valley, bordered by the ridges of Mount Ganda and Rena, natural boundaries with the territories of Gazzaniga and Comenduno. To the south-west, the line continues from the slopes of the Rena mountains to those of Mount Nigromo, a stretch within which Amora and Ama meet. To the West is Selvino with its plateau, while in the North-West direction the administrative division is with Rigosa, a hamlet of Algua, and with Costa Serina.
As far as hydrography is concerned, there are not many watercourses that cross the municipal territory. They are mostly small streams that collect the excess water coming from the surrounding mountains, and then develop in the bottom of the Serina Valley. Among these are the Rovaro, the Albina and the Valgua.

Recent studies date the first stable settlements back to Roman times: this hypothesis is supported by the etymological origin of the name, which would derive from the name Bellelo.
Already then the territory was dotted with countless urban agglomerations of tiny dimensions, a characteristic that the country has maintained over the centuries. The localities of Brevieno, Ghisalerio and Blello (as well as numerous scattered farmhouses), which make up the municipal territory, are ideologically united by the parish church, dedicated to the Annunciation of Mary. Built during the 18th century on Monte Faggio, and renovated a century later, it features paintings by local painters Quarenghi and Pollazzo.
Over the centuries Blello has always maintained the characteristics of the small mountain village, with a limited number of inhabitants mostly dedicated to living off what nature provided them.
Consequently, the main activities have always been those of the shepherd, the breeder, the woodcutter and the charcoal burner, that is, the one who transformed wood into charcoal.
Few are therefore the historical information of the town that several centuries ago gravitated politically in the orbit of the Imagna Valley: now inserted in the social and economic context of the Brembilla Valley, it depends administratively on the Brembana Valley.
It is known, however, that the small villages that make up Blello were only marginally affected by the faction struggles between Guelphs and Ghibellines during the Middle Ages. Here, in fact, there were no episodes of chronicle, although often people from nearby villages, fleeing persecution from one or the other side, took refuge in these isolated places.
In fact, the inhabitants themselves, like those of the nearby municipality of Gerosa, always tried to keep themselves out of power disputes, which guaranteed them peace of mind, safe from clashes and retaliation both during these struggles and after the advent of the Republic of Venice.
The following centuries did not see any significant events involving the small community, which, strengthened by its isolation, followed the events of the rest of the province without participating directly in them.
From the twentieth century the town began to suffer from a strong emigration of its inhabitants, attracted by greater professional and economic opportunities outside the municipal territory, making Blello the smallest town in the province.
Recently the diversified economic occupation and an improved road system, which allows communication with the Brembilla Valley and the Imagna Valley, allow those who do not want to lose their origins to access the structures of the nearest centres. This has allowed a small development of tourism, suitable for those who want to enjoy the tranquility of nature while admiring the panorama of the entire small valley.

Leaving the art nouveau of San Pellegrino Terme, go and discover the Serina Valley, which owes its name to the creek passing through it and is very different from what you have experienced in San Pellegrino. The first community Bracca, is first mentioned in an 1186 document in which the Bishop of Bergamo allows the inhabitants grazing rights. The communal borders of Bracca-Lepreno, which formed one community, were defined in 1234. During the viscount era, in 1392, Bracca was joined to Serina. From 1428, Bracca became an autonomous community. Bracca is admired for its many pretty neighbourhoods, the mule-trails, with its masonry full of history and for its main festivals, such as the chestnut and truffle festivals.
The toponym Branzi seems to derive from the dialectal voice Branz, or gallows tooth, a tool used to harvest hay. The first inhabitants of the area seem to have been the Romans, who began to exploit the copper mines present in the territory, as well as in the neighbouring villages (especially Isola di Fondra).
In the 16th century it became part of the Republic of Venice and in this period the mining activity developed further, which flanked copper with iron, and the production of the piodere, the slate stones still used today in the construction of roofs.
The town also gives its name to the typical local cheese, Branzi, used for the preparation of the famous Polenta Taragna.
It is only in the last decades that the tourism industry has begun to gain more and more popularity and the village is recovering after a period of slow and inexorable depopulation.

COUNTRY HISTORY
Camerata Cornello is one of the oldest villages in the Brembana Valley. It is presumable, even if there is no documentary evidence, that the first inhabited nuclei were already formed in the early Middle Ages following the barbarian invasions that forced the people of the city to take refuge in the less accessible valleys.
The first written testimonies about the town date back to the year 1000. The most ancient toponym of which we have news concerns the town of Cespedosio, Cespedusso, mentioned in a capitular parchment of 1093. The first mention of Camarata dates back to 1181 and in other documents of the same period there are also the names of Cornello, Bruga, Darco, Orbrembo and Brembella. As for the toponym "Camerata", the etymology is uncertain and can be traced back to the presence in the area of a fortified building with arched openings.
Initially the history of these small communities did not differ at all from that of the other villages in the Brembana Valley subjected to the feudal regime of the bishops of Bergamo; then in the communal period the village belonged for a certain period to the municipality of San Pietro d'Orzio from which it became autonomous during the fourteenth century.
When the Visconti dominion was established in Bergamo, Camerata was included in the vicariate of Val Brembana Superiore and remained there for all the centuries of Venetian domination (1428-1797).
At the end of the sixteenth century, according to a report by Giovanni Da Lezze, the town had 320 souls, divided into 73 families. At that time the chief town was Cornello, whose importance as a market place and place of transit along the Via Mercatourm had grown considerably in previous centuries.
Alongside commercial activities, the town was devoted to agriculture and animal husbandry. Some mills and wool processing plants completed the economic picture of a community that drew every source of livelihood from within.
The life of the village did not change appreciably until the end of the Venetian domination (1797).
Great economic and social difficulties took over instead in the nineteenth century, under French and Austrian domination and then with the new Kingdom of Italy.

(Source: Tarcisio Bottani, Camerata Cornello da Vivere, Camerata Cornello, 2000).
The municipal territory, situated in a high-profile naturalistic context, allows an innumerable number of excursions suitable for every need. Among the others, there are the ascent to Mount Aga and the Pizzo del Diavolo di Tenda, but also those to the Rifugio Laghi Gemelli, Rifugio Fratelli Calvi and Rifugio Fratelli Longo, the latter two destinations for many mountain-bike climbs.
During the winter period, the village, in partnership with the nearby municipalities, boasts numerous opportunities for lovers of alpine skiing and ski mountaineering, with connections to the resort of Foppolo. Half an hour's walk from the town centre, going up towards the Fratelli Calvi refuge, is the characteristic village of Pagliari. It is a small urban agglomeration in rustic style, with houses built inardesia and without foundations, so much so that it is called the "contrada di pietra". Travelled for a long time by wayfarers and smugglers who passed through to avoid the customs of the San Marco Pass, it has origins dating back to the 16th century.

The area is surrounded by nature and offers a great view. It is therefore possible to make an innumerable number of excursions, suitable for every kind of need.
The historic village has remained unchanged in recent decades, maintaining the characteristic charm of small mountain villages.
The parish church dedicated to St. Bartolomeo is particularly charming, with several houses built in the same nucleus of the church itself. On one of these, called Casa Milesi, there is a very interesting macabre dance. The church, built in 1611 and enlarged several times in the following centuries, has paintings and frescoes by many local artists and a very famous organ, of Serassi production. During the restoration works of the organ carried out in 2007, the authorship of the instrument has been attributed, on the basis of some letters in Indian ink placed on the covers of the bass-bowmen, to "Angelo Bossi 1800".
From the Latin cornus = rock and albus = white. The name refers to the cliff above the village, the most significant feature of the area. The poet Virgil admired its savage beauty on one of his journeys and gave it the name Corna Bianca because it rises above the valley mists like a veritable home of the gods. A legend about gnomes and chains is connected with this great rock. The cliff which protects the village and its inhabitants from the cold mountain wind is up close and personal. It is enchanting and scary - it might invade the village. But the gnomes who have always lived in the mountain forest take turns to keep the rock anchored with huge chains. They never gave up and the first Sunday in August the chains and ropes used by the peasants in their daily work were blessed in thanks to them.
With its beautiful panoramic position along the Via Mercatorum, the town looks down over the valley floor. Its origins may date back to the 1st century AD during the Roman Empire when all the Serina Valley was subject to Bergamo. The first documentary evidence is from 1186 when it is mentioned that the Bishop of Bergamo made concessions to some residents in the area at the request of the village priest. In medieval times the village played an important role. It was called Costa di Sambusita then and was one of the first in the area to be self-ruled with its own communal statute. Its territory included Sambustia and Rigosa, which are now part of Algua, and all the small residential areas on the left bank of the Serina creek. It was not until the 15th century that the village changed its name to Costa Serina.
Set in a naturalistic context of great depth, the municipal territory offers an enviable range of options to anyone who wants to stay there: from trekking, and related challenging excursions, to simple walks suitable for anyone who wants to spend a few moments in contact with nature. During the winter period the area becomes a destination for many skiers thanks to the facilities in the area of Monte Avaro, consortium between the various villages of the Averara Valley.
Historically interesting is the old Venetian Customs Palace, located at the pass of Salmurano, although it is now in dilapidated conditions.
Also worth mentioning is the parish church of Santa Margherita, dating back to the fifteenth century and rebuilt in the eighteenth century, houses works of good value, including a polyptych of Andrea Previtali.

Dossena ( From the speed bump Dorsum on which the housing nucleus is developed) is an italian little town of 974 habitants between Seriana and Brembana Valley. It is in the province of Bergamo.
The first settlements probably date back to the bronze age with the discovery of iron calamine and galena mines. For this reason Dossena is considered the first stable settlement in Brembana Valley.
The exploration of the mines has made the country an important center from the etruscan era and this condition has allowed the construction of muleteer of liaison that facilitated the operations and rhe commercial moves. One of this muleteer was the old "Via Mercatorum" recently recovered and still viable.
The ancient mines shall be recovered and now shall be accessible with a tour inside them. The country has a great historical importance because it was seat of the first "arcipresbiteriale" church in Brembana Valley. Now it is seat of some paintings of Paolo Veronese and here Leonardo Da Vinci resided and he tries to improve the mines and recover them. Also the murales  are very important, they are some masterpieces made by a lot of artsits as Filippo Alcaini. There are a lot of scenes with sacred and profane subjects.
There is also the so-called "Mascherada de Dosena" that is a party during carnival and it celebrate the finish of winter that is a cold season and it isn't favourable to country practices.
The territory of Foppolo is divided into several districts: Arale, Costa, Moretti, Piano, Rovera, Sponda, Teggie, Cortivo, and Vendulaperto. Many of these are uninhabited, but keep intact the rural style that has distinguished them over the centuries.
The old town centre, on the other hand, has seen its appearance changed in the name of tourism: hundreds of apartments, used as "second homes", built a bit 'everywhere, have completely distorted the original landscape.
From the historical point of view, you can still admire the parish church, dedicated to Santa Maria Assunta. Built in the 18th century in place of another one, originally built in the 15th century and destroyed by an avalanche, it is composed of three altars and houses works of good value, including a 15th century wooden Pietà. You can still admire the various districts of ancient construction, still intact.

Isola di Fondra is an Italian town of 191 inhabitants in the province of Bergamo, in Lombardy. Located in the upper Brembana Valley, it is about 45 km north of the orobic capital. The municipality unites two centres of ancient foundation: above all Fondra, where iron, pyrite, copper and silver metals mines used to be. Moreover, the etymology of Fondra seems to validate the original existence of the foundries that worked the extracted minerals. It is known that in the 1600's the skill of the valley workers was known and appreciated outside the province and abroad, where many emigrated seasonally united in family groups: Paganoni, Michetti, Vitali, Scuri, ... And this despite the threats of Venice, which for strategic reasons hindered the emigration of skilled workers outside its territory. The districts of Pusdosso, Comelli, Foppa and Forcella, which in the frescoed decorations of the plasters document the splendor of a flourishing past, were aligned on the "Via del Ferro", which can still be read in several sections due to the width of the track and the regular connection of the cobblestones.
Lenna is an Italian town of 662 inhabitants in the province of Bergamo in Lombardy. Located in the upper Brembana Valley, at the confluence of the two branches of the river Brembo, it is about 28 kilometers north of the orobic capital. The municipality is part of the Mountain Community of the Brembana Valley. The municipal territory offers excellent views, thanks to the naturalistic context in which it is immersed. There are therefore numerous possibilities for excursions in the surrounding mountains, suitable for every need: from beginners to the most experienced and demanding users.
In 2007, the Brembana Valley cycle route, which runs along the Brembo river, was also inaugurated, offering the opportunity for walks or bike rides.

Situated in one the most breathtaking panorama,  Mezzoldo offers different types of entertainments: numerous excursions suitable for all the tourists (as starting point or destination Ca San Marco Refugee), fishing in mountain creeks, winter sports, ski mountaineering . It’s worthwhile a visit the palace which hosted  the Venetian customs. Also the Church is important. It was built in the Sixteen Century and dedicated to San Giovanni Battista, it has an important painting designed by Lattanzio da Rimini and an altar in black marble. It’s also commendable the village Sparavera, a little community South the administrative centre with its rural houses.
Moiode' Calvi is an Italian town of 213 inhabitants in the province of Bergamo, in Lombardy. Situated in the higher Val Brembana, it is about 40 kilometres north of the capital of Bergamo. A small village nestled among the mountains, it does not include episodes of depth in its history. History made by the daily life of its inhabitants, who have always been dedicated to the work that nature offers, from breeding to the production of charcoal. The hillock of Moio was chosen as a holiday residence by the noble Calvi family of Venetian origin, who had a large hunting reserve in the area. In the long run, some of their descendants settled there permanently, integrating with the local residents who were dedicated to the farming activity. And in fact, even today, next to articulated rustic peasant architecture and arcades, typical of the valley, you can still see other buildings of superior tone, with decorations and friezes that can be traced back to the Venetian style.

The first document attesting the existence of the village dates back to the year 1194, when the village of Olmo is mentioned in an act concerning an investiture. Recent studies indicate, however, that the first settlements were before the XI century. The toponym certainly derives from Ulmus, that is the elm tree plant, particularly present in the territory at that time.
Situated on the territory of the Holy Roman Empire, it was given by Charlemagne to the monks of the Abbey of Tours. Subsequent exchanges and investitures saw the areas pass under the command of the Della Torre family.
They also dominated the nearby Valsassina, seat of the feud, which consequently became the centre of reference for the town of Olmo and most of the valley. Subsequently the command passed to the Visconti family, who granted special statutes, tax relief and great autonomy.
The arrival of the Venetian domination confirmed the privileges previously granted and favoured commercial traffic, already flourishing thanks to the presence of the Via Mercatorum, the artery of traffic with the nearby Val Seriana. The Serenissima built a new road, the Via Priula, which directly connected the capital Bergamo with the canton of Graubünden, in what is now Valtellina. In this regard, in the locality of Malpasso, there was a customs office that was used by transporters coming down from the San Marco Pass, which was in operation until the end of the 19th century.
In these centuries a society called Società degli Originari was created in the village, in which all the families who had lived in the village for the longest time were grouped together. This in order to protect their interests towards the "strangers", i.e. those who, coming from other areas, purchased land on municipal land. With this association, these families wanted to maintain privileges on land passed on to others, such as timber harvesting, cutting hay and grazing animals.
In 1863, just after the unification of Italy, the village took the definitive name of Olmo al Brembo.

The name of the town refers to its location and probably derived from the habit of other villages in the Serina Valley to call the residents of the districts of Oltre il Colle (S. Bartolomeo, Zambla Basssa, Zambla Alta and Zorzone) “beyond the hill” (the Vanini is the hill past Valpiana). The community coat of arms is a shield divided in two surmounted by a Ghibelline crown, the symbol of a free community. The red field on the left symbolises 3 mountains, two at the base and one at the top, with a pick above to recall the mines that were a mainstay of the valley economy in the past. On the right, the blue field is completely taken up with a lovely gushing fountain, the Drago spring whose waters were so refreshing in the past.
The village, located on the slopes of Pizzo Tre Signori, (2,554 m) where the Valle D'Inferno stream meets the stream that descends from Monte Valletto (2,371 m), is set in a mountain context and offers numerous possibilities for excursions suitable for all needs. The main one is undoubtedly the Valle d'Inferno, from which many nature trails start.

Piazza Brembana is located in the upper Brembana Valley, at the confluence of the two branches of the river Brembo. It is the main town of the Mountain Community of the Brembana Valley. Situated at the crossroads of the two branches of the Brembo, which descend from Mezzoldo and Fondra Valley, the Municipality of Piazza Brembana has always played an important role for the entire Upper Brembana Valley. Administrative centre during the Venetian domination, capital of the Mandamento di Piazza in the 19th century, it remains the reference point of the small surrounding municipalities, especially thanks to the weekly market, which every Friday morning attracts the valley inhabitants for all kinds of purchases.
Particularly pleasant is the walk along the old town centre with the streets F.lli Calvi and San Bernardo in their new guise, after the rebuilding of the road surface. Today here you can find a recent ecomuseum named after the four Calvi brothers, who died during the First World War. In the past centuries the administrative and social life of the village took place. There was the Town Hall and the Carabinieri Barracks (today's hotel "Gigi"), there were the Pretura premises occupied by the Convent of Canossian Sisters, and the little Church of San Bernardo with its Oratory still existing today. Until a few decades ago there were shops of all kinds along these streets. Today the main traffic and trade centre is via Belotti, while the administrative life of the town has moved towards the "Dosso di San Martino" where the municipal offices, the Carabinieri Barracks, and the headquarters of the Mountain Community are located.

Piazzatorre is an Italian town of 444 inhabitants in the province of Bergamo, in Lombardy. Located in the High Brembana Valley, it is about 48 km north of the capital Orobico. It has a territorial area with an altimetry ranging from 850 m above sea level to 1,100 m above sea level.
It has always been commonly believed that the place name Piazzatorre derives from the union of the words square and tower, to mean the square of the tower, perhaps because in that place stood a tower surrounded by a clearing. If for the word square, stalls, the etymology is plausible, it is not so for tower. In fact, if this hypothesis were valid, in the most ancient Latin documents the word turris, turrim, turri should be used, depending on the declination.
It is therefore clear that the tower is not relevant to the etymology of the toponym Piazzatorre, which instead should be referred to the vocabolotorus or taurus, (understood as high ground or raised ground) which combined with stalls (square, forecourt) indicates raised forecourt, a flat area located on high ground, which is then the geographical characteristic of Piazzatorre.
Piazzatorre, today, is a winter and summer tourist resort, mainly frequented as a holiday resort and as a venue for pre-season training camps for sports teams.

Piazzolo is an Italian town of 88 inhabitants in the province of Bergamo, in Lombardy. Located in the upper Brembana Valley, it is about 47 km north of the orobic capital. With its 88 inhabitants, it is the second least populated municipality in the province of Bergamo, after Blello.
The name Piazzolo derives from the location that the village has had since its origins: a small clearing in a territory of high mountains. Considering the size of the inhabited nucleus, already limited since then, here is Piazzolo. Piazzolo has an area of 4.7 square kilometers and rises 702 meters above sea level. The nickname of the inhabitants is "i gacc dè Piazol" (the cats of Piazzolo) and it is supposed to come from the fact that the inhabitants are smart and cunning people like cats. In the municipal coat of arms there are three cats.

The first documents attesting the existence of the village date back to 1258, when mention is made of the subdivision of the lands, almost 70 years before, made by the bishop of Bergamo at that time owner of the whole area, received by the emperors of the Holy Roman Empire. In an act prior to this, drawn up in 1234, the hamlet of Bordogna was named, whose name would date back to Bordonus, probably an ancient inhabitant who owned the properties in the area.
In 1442 the village became part of the Republic of Venice.
In the Napoleonic age (1810) the neighbouring municipalities of Baresie Bordogna were aggregated to the municipality of Ronco, which recovered their autonomy with the constitution of the Lombardo-Veneto Kingdom.
At the Unification of Italy (1861) the municipality of Ronco had 592 inhabitants. Two years later the municipality took the new name of Roncobello.
In 1927 the municipalities of Baresi and Bordogna were definitively aggregated.

The name of the town derives from the mineral wealth of the subsoil: in fact, if St. John is the patron saint of the town, the adjective white is intended to emphasize the great presence of limestone formations of that color.
The mining activity made the fortune of the village that prospered also during the Middle Ages, when the area was affected by a growing demographic development due to the improved living conditions, but also to the immigration of numerous nuclei fleeing the fratricidal struggles between Guelphs and Ghibellines.
Trade was also favoured by the presence of the Via Mercatorum, which connected the capital with the upper valley, as well as by the proximity of the Taleggio valley, which flows right at the northern end of the town and which offered the possibility of reaching Valsassina and the city of Lecco.
With the advent of the Venetian domination, trade increased further, also thanks to the construction of another road, the Via Priula, which connected Bergamo with the Canton of Graubünden and which passed right through the town centre.
The main families of the town established important relations with the Serenissima, so much so that they played leading roles both in the lagoon city and in the orobic capital. This situation also allowed the development of a great exchange of labour, causing a lot of emigration to Venice, where the labourers of the people of Brembane were very appreciated. The ability of these people to work tirelessly even in the face of scarce earnings gave rise to the image of the famous mask Harlequin, whose origins are disputed between Venice and Bergamo, able to satisfy two different masters at the same time.
In this period the village took on a well-defined conformation, so much so that even today it shows its original structure, dating back to a period between the 15th and 17th centuries.
The events and the subsequent political regimes did not affect the village so much, at least until the construction of the railway of the Brembana Valley, which took place at the beginning of the 20th century and brought further development in the area.
This village, together with Camerata Cornello, was the scene of Simone Pianetti's murderous fury on 13 July 1914.
In 1928, during the administrative restructuring carried out by the Fascist regime, the municipality of San Giovanni Bianco also incorporated within its borders the nearby municipalities of San Pietro d'Orzio, San Gallo and Fuipiano al Brembo (the latter two saw part of their territory also assigned to the nearby municipality of San Pellegrino Terme), thus assuming the current administrative appearance.
Subsequently, with the abolition of the railway line in 1967, the area experienced a phase of heavy difficulty, amplified by infrastructures not suitable for users.

San Pellegrino Terme is the pearl of the Brembana Valley, a sophisticated art nouveau treasure trove whose internationally acclaimed, top quality mineral water sets it apart from other towns. Although originally equally characterised by poverty, plague and rural homes, once the production of mineral water started in the 19th century, San Pellegrino started setting itself apart and developing an architecture unlike any other in the valley. San Pellegrino’s history did not, however, commence with art nouveau but with 15th century relics and 18th century religious buildings before the main attractions took hold the scene, the Casino and Grand Hotel of the Belle Époque. Construction of elegant private homes and public spaces, giving a feeling of walking through the past, continued until the 2nd World War. The itinerary starts at the Casino displayed on the bottle label.
Consisting of numerous hamlets, Colla, Bindo, Foppa, Carale, Cugno, Gerro, Taleggio, Monticello and Caprile Superiore, the municipal territory is set in a high-profile naturalistic context. The numerous woods interspersed with meadows encourage excursions, which are suitable for all needs, both for demanding and expert users and for simple walks.
Of particular importance is the Sanctuary of the Blessed Virgin of Sorrows. Dating back to the XI-XII century and renovated two centuries later, it was consecrated by St. Charles Borromeo in 1566, and for many years it was the religious place of reference for the town and the neighbouring ones, playing the role of parish church until the construction of the new church. Inside there are thick paintings, among which a cycle of frescoes, stuccoes and polychrome marbles stands out.
The new parish church, naturally dedicated to St. Bridget, was built in the 19th century and has some works coming from the old parish. Inside, the organ, produced by Adeodato Bossi, is beautifully displayed.
Sedrina is an Italian town of 2,555 inhabitants (called sedrinesi) in the province of Bergamo, in Lombardy.
Situated at the entrance of the Brembana Valley, it is about 15 kilometres north of the orobic capital. The municipality is part of the mountain community of the Brembana Valley.
The origins of the town are not completely clear, even if it seems that small settlements were already present in Roman times. In this regard, it seems that even the toponym dates back to that period, deriving from Sedulina, diminutive of seat.
However, the settlements never developed in a consistent way, given the very isolated position of the village, connected to the towns further down the valley only by narrow paths, because of a "bottleneck" of the valley itself just south of the town. The easiest roads led only to the north, in the direction of Zogno and its hamlets, or to the orographic right of the valley, from where it was possible to reach Clanezzo and Brembilla by means of suspension bridges over the Brembo river, already mentioned in documents dating back to the 2nd century.
However, this isolation defended the village during the barbarian invasions and the faction struggles between Guelphs and Ghibellines. In medieval times it was included in the territories managed by the Bishop of Bergamo, and administratively united with Almè, from which it separated during the 14th century to form the municipality of Sedrina and Stabello with the homonymous village situated further north (now linked to Zogno).
The arrival of the Republic of Venice marked a turning point in the existence of the village: the Serenissima decided to build a road, the Via Priula, which directly connected the city of Bergamo with the Brembana valley via Sedrina. Completed in 1593, this very daring work took Sedrina and the neighbouring villages out of commercial isolation thanks to an intervention, called the keys of Botta, which allowed to overcome the natural obstacles located in Botta.

Selvino's inhabited centre develops on a plateau between 920 and 950 m a.s.l. which, bordered by the Perello, Podona, Poieto and Purito mountains, is situated on the watershed between the Seriana and Brembana Valleys. In fact, although both geographically and historically it is considered part of the Seriana Valley, half of its territory falls within the Serina Valley, tributary of the Brembana Valley.
From Bracca drive towards Serina, which, like S. Pellegrino T., is steeped in history. Serina is synonymous with a mountain holiday village. It is redolent of its Venetian past. Regarding the foundation of Serina, the local parish priest and historian, Don Tommaso Carrara Erasmi (1744-1818), wrote in his essay “Historical information on Serina and Lepreno” that the founders of his home town were two Alemanni, Ceronio and Carrerio, “remarkable people… virtuous, kind-hearted men”, who arrived in the valley with Charlemagne towards the end of the 8th century AD. Other sources, including said Don Tommaso, mention the Carraresi from Padova whilst others speak of a Carrara family back in 1134 … it remains a mystery! Don Tommaso also mentions 22 famous people from Serina: Sister Angela Carrara, a professor, 13 men of the church including 4 beatified, 4 military men, 2 professors of medicine, the painter Palma the Elder, and a writer, Gerolamo Tiraboschi (1731-1794).
The commune is composed by the union of four inhabited nuclei: Olda, Sottochiesa, Pizzino and Peghera, located in a very sunny area of the Taleggio Valley, which gives its name to the municipality itself.
Ubiale Clanezzo is an Italian town of 1 404 inhabitants in the province of Bergamo in Lombardy.
Consisting of the two villages of Ubiale and Clanezzo, and located at the entrance of  Brembana Valley, it is about 16 km north of the orobic capital.

The history of the Municipality of Val Brembilla begins on February 4, 2014. The new municipality was established by Regional Law no. 3 of 30 January 2014, through the merger of the municipalities of Brembilla and Gerosa and following the favourable result obtained in the two municipalities of the consultative referendum held on 1 December 2013.
The history of the municipalities of Brembilla and Gerosa has its roots in the centuries. The municipality covers an area of 31,44 square kilometres (21 square kilometres former municipality of Brembilla, 10,44 square kilometres former municipality of Gerosa), including almost the entire Val Brembilla. It borders the municipalities of Sedrina, Ubiale Clanezzo, Capizzone, Zogno, San Pellegrino Terme, Blello, Taleggio, Berbenno, Corna Imagna, Capizzone, San Giovanni Bianco, Sant'Omobono Terme.

Valleve is an Italian town of 140 inhabitants in the province of Bergamo, in Lombardy. Once you pass the narrow slate overhanging slates of Branzi, where you can see the ploughmen at work, the valley softens again and opens up into pastures and fir woods. This is the area of Valleve, whose Latin name means open valley (levis). In feudal times it depended on the monasteries of Astino and Pontida, to which the "Capitanei" of Valleve (the Cattaneo of today) had to pay an annual tribute for the income of the "piode" quarries and the iron, copper and silver mines. In this regard, it is curious to note that the abbots thought well to supplement the percentage of iron due to them with as many weights of cheese, knowing that in the summer, when it was not possible to work in the mines because of the high humidity, the valley people did not remain inoperative, but dedicated themselves to the mountain pasture. The valley overlooks the Valtellina from the Tartano Pass, where the Cattaneo family had equal interests in the use of pastures and mines. Even today, at the Tartano Pass, where, among other things, a defensive line was set up during the First World War, on the day of San Rocco, a meeting of the valley inhabitants and the mountain pastures on both sides is celebrated. The inhabitants of Valleve also participate in the feast of the Madonna della Neve, whose protection is invoked to safeguard the avalanches that in the past (there were no avalanches yet) caused serious mourning and ruins.

Located in an area devoted to tourism, it is favourably affected by the altitude which makes the climate cool and pleasant in summer and the southern exposure which mitigates the winters. The area rich in woods and mountains therefore favors hiking, which are suitable for all needs, both for demanding and experienced users and for simple walks.
Interesting is the parish church, dedicated to St. Michael, which stands out on the other buildings of the village thanks to the bell tower on which stands the statue of the patron saint. Built in the middle of the 15th century and enlarged and restored several times, the religious building houses valuable paintings inside, among some works by Carlo Ceresa.
The other church on the municipal territory is that of St. Carlo. Situated outside the inhabited centre, it dates back to the XVIII century and presents a simple architecture, as simple as the works contained in it.
Finally, the fountain located in the main square and built at the end of the 19th century is worth mentioning.

Valtorta (Altòrta in Bergamo dialect) is an Italian town of 295 inhabitants in the province of Bergamo, in Lombardy.
It is located in Val Stabina, on the side of the upper Val Brembana, about 50 km north-west of the orobic capital.
A small village nestled among the mountains, which owes the origin of its place name to the tortuous conformation (tortuous valley) that this small valley has, does not include episodes of depth in its history.
However, it is common custom to believe that the first stable settlements in this area can be traced back to the time of the barbarian invasions, when the populations subject to raids took refuge in remote places, sheltered from the rush of the conquering hordes. In particular, it is presumed that it was the inhabitants of nearby Valsassina who arrived first (presumably around the sixth century), as evidenced by some place names that are the same between the two areas. In this sense it was for a long time linked to the parish church of Primaluna, situated in the above mentioned valley, with which the village is connected by the Piani di Bobbio, now a renowned tourist resort.
However, in medieval times this small village, together with the nearby municipality of Cassiglio, developed a flourishing mining activity of materials such as iron and silver, with the consequent development of activities linked to them, such as the working of iron in nails through hammers driven by the numerous watercourses that cross the municipal territory. It is said that the iron came from the Valle di Scalve and the Val Seriana, and a large number of workers were employed for its processing.
The exploitation of this potential placed this small valley at the centre of the aims of the lords of the Torriani family and the Viscontipoi family.
Everything continued with the arrival of the Serenissima, which, unlike its predecessors, guaranteed numerous reliefs to the entire area.
In this period was born Girolamo Regazzoni, perhaps the most important village in the history of this small village. After emigrating to Venice, then the center of all activities, he was first elected bishop of Bergamo, then apostolic nuncio to Paris, also participating in the Council of Trent.
The end of the Venetian domination and the consequent advent of the Cisalpine Republic brought great changes to Valtorta, which found itself incorporated in the canton of the upper Val Brembana, with its capital in Piazza, and many privileges that the Republic of San Marco had granted for centuries to the entire area were revoked. The following years saw the French domination succeed the Austrian one, until 1859, when the Kingdom of Italy was born.
Recent times have not reported episodes of particular importance, if not the tragedy caused by an avalanche that, in 1888, caused the death of thirty people in the Torre district.
The 20th century saw the progressive closure of the mines, which started a slow but inexorable process of depopulation. This was partially mitigated by the development of tourism, which gave new impetus to the local economy, also helped by the revival of typical local products, especially in the dairy sector.

Vedeseta is an Italian town of 205 inhabitants in the province of Bergamo in Lombardy. The name Vedeseta could derive from ''Viticeta'', that is an area characterized by Vitex bushes, a shrub also known as Agnocasto, or from the verb ''videre'' which, referring to places, assumes the meaning of ''being well exposed''.
Situated in the low part of Brembana Valley not far from San Pellegrino Terme (4km). The administrative centre grows along the valley floor on the right bank relief of Brembo River, while the other residential center     are located mainly on the left bank relief.
The town hall of Piazza Brembana was built in 1930 to a design by Arch. Luigi Angelini.

Turist office

Tourism office of San Pellegrino Terme
Via San Carlo, 4 - San Pellegrino Terme
Phone: 034.521020
Email: associazioneoter@gmail.com
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